O que é Cultura?

Definir “cultura” exige aceitar duas premissas: por um lado, a complexidade do termo e, por outro, a contínua evolução e adaptação da sua definição.
No que respeita à primeira premissa, basta relembrar o emblemático contributo de Kroeber e Kluckhohn (1952): no seu livro, intitulado “Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions”, apresentam 164 definições de cultura, provenientes de diferentes disciplinas, legados geográficos e pontos de vista. Ainda hoje essa complexidade é visível no uso comum da palavra nos mais variados contextos.
A primeira definição antropológica de cultura foi dada no século XIX, por E. B. Taylor, mas só na segunda metade do século XX se começou a dar importância à cultura do quotidiano, através dos Cultural Studies. Esta desproporção poderá explicar por que persiste ainda, em alguns segmentos, a tensão entre alta cultura e cultura de massas e por que se questiona se os modos de vida (o lifestyle), os bens culturais ou a cultura de serviços fazem parte ou não da aura da cultura.

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